Ida Sue Baron, Ph.D., ABPP
Board Certified in Clinical Neuropsychology
Board Certified Subspecialist in Pediatric Neuropsychology
American Board of Professional Psychology
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
The University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA
& The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC

Prematurity’s Effects on Toddlers, Infants, and Teens (PETIT) Study

Dr. Baron directed the Prematurity’s Effects on Toddlers, Infants, and Teens (PETIT) Study from 2005 to 2016. The PETIT Study was a longitudinal preterm outcomes research study conducted in Northern Virginia (Washington, DC metropolitan region). Crista Hopp, M.A. was the Study’s Research coordinator.

The PETIT Study was uniquely sustained by financial support from a large neonatology private practice. The program benefitted from steady applications from undergraduate and graduate students from local universities who volunteered their services.

From its inception, this research program conducted comprehensive intellectual, neuropsychological, and behavioral studies of children born in each birth year and across the entire preterm spectrum, from earliest viability (22-23 weeks’ gestation) through late preterm (34-36 weeks’ gestation). As well, children born at term (37-41 weeks’ gestation) were recruited in each birth cohort year as controls. Parental and teacher behavioral questionnaires were also collected for each participant at each visit.

Initial family contact and data collection began at ages 1 and 2 years, with comprehensive testing conducted at ages 3, 6, and 9 years.

We made a substantial contribution through medical and neuropsychological scientific presentations and critical peer-reviewed journal publications. A listing of these is on this site, under Publications, and below:


PETIT Study Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Baron, I.S., Litman, F. R., Ahronovich, M. D., Gidley Larson, J. C. (2007). Neuropsychology Grand Rounds. Neuropsychological Outcome Of Preterm Triplets Discordant For Birthweight: A Case Report. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21, 2, 338-362.

Baron, I.S., Ahronovich, M. D., Erickson, K., Gidley Larson, J. C., and Litman, F. R. (2009) Age-Appropriate Early School Age Neurobehavioral Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Birth Without Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Single Center Experience. Early Human Development, 85, 191-196.

Baron, I.S., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Coulehan, K., Baker, R., and Litman, F. R. (2009) Visuospatial and Verbal Fluency Relative Deficits in ‘Complicated’ Late-Preterm Preschool Children. Early Human Development, 85, 751-754.

Baron, I.S. and Rey-Casserly, C. (2010) Extremely Preterm Birth Outcome: A Review of Four Decades of Cognitive Research. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 430-452. DOI:10.1007/s11065-010-9132-z.

Baron, I.S., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Litman, F. R., and Brandt, J. (2010) Spatial Location Memory Test Performance Discriminates Children Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight and Late-Preterm at Age Three. Neuropsychology, 24, 787-794.

Gidley Larson, J. C., Baron, I.S., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Baker, R., and Litman, F. R. (2011) Neuromotor Outcomes at School Age of Extremely Preterm Birth: Early Detection of Subtle Signs. Neuropsychology, 25, 66-75.

Baron, I.S., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Baker, R., and Litman, F. R. (2011) Neuropsychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight at Age Three. Special Issue: Being born too early or too little. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 5-21.

Baron, I.S., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Baker, R., and Litman, F. R. (2011) Cognitive Deficit in Preschoolers Born Late-preterm. Early Human Development, 87, 115-119.

Baron, I. S., Brandt, J., Erickson, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Baker, R., Litman, F. R. (2012) Selective Deficit in Spatial Location Memory in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children at Age Six. Child Neuropsychology, 18, 299-311.

Baron, I. S., Kerns, K. A., Müeller, U. Ahronovich, M. D., and Litman, F. R. (2012). Executive Functions in Extremely Low Birth Weight and Late Preterm Preschoolers: Effects on Working Memory and Response Inhibition. Child Neuropsychology, 18, 586-599. DOI 10.1080/09297049.2011631906

Crotty, K., Ahronovich, M. D., Baron, I.S., Baker, R., Erickson, K., and Litman, F. R. (2012) Neuropsychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Postnatal Dexamethasone in Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Children at Early School-Age. Journal of Perinatology, 32, 139-146.

Baron, I. S. and Anderson, P. A. (2012). Editorial: Neuropsychological Assessment of Preschoolers. In P. A. Anderson, and I. S. Baron (Guest Editors), Special Issue on Neuropsychological Assessment of Preschoolers. Neuropsychology Review, 22, 311–312. DOI 10.1007/s11065-012-9221-2

Baron, I. S. and Leonberger, K. A. (2012) Assessment of Intelligence in the Preschool Period. Neuropsychology Review, 22, 334–344. DOI 10.1007/s11065-012-9215-0

Baron, I. S., Litman, F.R., Ahronovich, M.D., and Baker, R. (2012) Late preterm birth: A review of medical and neuropsychological childhood outcomes. Neuropsychology Review, 22, 438-450. DOI 10.1007/s11065-012-9210-5

Berry, K. A., Baron, I. S., Weiss, B. A., Baker, R., Ahronovich, M.D., and Litman, F. R. (online, 2013). In Vitro Fertilization and Late Preterm Preschoolers’ Neuropsychological Outcomes: The PETIT Study. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (Editor’s Choice article), 209, 356.e1-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.06.041

Baron, I.S., Weiss, B. A., Baker, R., Khoury, A., Remsburg, I., Thermolice, J.W., Litman, F. R. & Ahronovich, M.D. (2014) Subtle Adverse Effects of Late Preterm Birth: A Cautionary Note. Neuropsychology, 29. 11-18. DOI: 10.1037/neu0000018

McCann, J., Rider, N. G., Weiss, B. A., Litman, F. R., & Baron, I. S. (2014) Latent Mean Comparisons on The BRIEF in Preterm Children: Parent and Teacher Differences. Child Neuropsychology. DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2013.859663

Baron, I. S., Weiss, B. A., Litman, F. R, Ahronovich, M. D., and Baker, R. (2014) Latent Mean Differences in Executive Function In At-Risk Preterm Children: The Delay-Deficit Dilemma. Neuropsychology, 28, 541-551. DOI: 10.1037/neu0000076

Gerner, G. and Baron, I. S. (2014) Pregnancy Complications and Neuropsychological Outcomes: A Review. Child Neuropsychology, 21, 269-284. DOI:10.1080/09297049.2014.910301

Baron, I. S., Hopp, C. & Weiss, B. A. (online, 2014) Developmental Normative Data for the Baron-Hopkins Board Test of Spatial Location Memory. Child Neuropsychology. doi:10.1080/09297049.2014.957264

Rider, G. N., Weiss, B., McDermott, A. T., Litman, F. R., & Baron, I. S. (online, 2015) Test of Visuospatial Construction: Validity Evidence in Extremely Low Birth Weight and Late Preterm Children at Early School Age. Child Neuropsychology. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2015.1026889

Baron, I. S., Weiss, B. A., Baker, R., Ahronovich, M. D., Litman, F. R., Baveja, R. (2016) Neuropsychological Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants Exposed to Low Oxygen Targets: An Observational Study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 322-331. doi:10.1017/S1355617715001186

Book Chapters

Gidley Larson, J. C., Baron, I. S., Ahronovich, M. D., and Iampietro, M., (2010) Birth Below 500 Grams. In J. E. Morgan, J., I.S. Baron, J. Ricker (Eds.). Casebook of Clinical Neuropsychology, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 329-344.

Baron, I. S., Leonberger, K. A., and Ahronovich, M. D. Preterm Birth Outcomes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. (2013) In I. S. Baron and C. Rey-Casserly (Eds.), Pediatric Neuropsychology: Medical Advances and Lifespan Outcomes, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 237-256.

Kline, A., Leonberger, K. A., Baron, I. S. (2013) Neonatal Encephalopathy. In I. S. Baron and C. Rey-Casserly (Eds.), Pediatric Neuropsychology: Medical Advances and Lifespan Outcomes, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 138-157,